Dual Coding Theory

December 8, 2013

Then outlined the specific findings of the research, organized around the four main areas of research were reviewed. COGNITIVE theories of learning: the Dual coding theory (Dual Coding Theory) 2 argues that humans encode information both in verbal formats such as non-verbal. If both formats are addressed, the information is easier to retain and remember (eg. Verbal and non-verbal information can address through the use of the OG). The theory of schemes (Schema Theory) 3 asserts that schemas or information networks exist within human memory. The use of graphic organizers (OG) can help students to link existing knowledge, organized in schemes, with the new knowledge. Cognitive load theory (Cognitive Load Theory) 4 suggests that the load or working memory capacity, has an upper limit on the amount of information that can be processed.

If that load is exceeded, the learning does not occur. If the OG is used properly, it can reduce the cognitive load and consequently, allow more working memory resources are dedicated to learning. RESEARCH with BASE scientific (IBC) in the use of organizers graphics (OG) to develop literacy one IBC studies and a meta-analysis of 23 studies concluded that the OG moderately affect the results of the tests of vocabulary. IBC (quasi-experimental) study, which was carried out with students from grades (courses) 1 and 2, found that the OG helped at least 80% of the students at both levels to master key skills of vocabulary. Two studies IBC quasi experimental, focused on the use of OG as part of the writing process with students in grades 2 and 3. The results of tests that have been applied later revealed that student writing skills had increased. Two IBC quasi-experimental studies involving students in the early grades of primary basic (grades 1 and 2 ), found that the OG helped to improve students reading comprehension. To follow up on a review of research literature, in the teaching of vocabulary and comprehension of text, the National Reading Panel 2000 (National Panel of reading American 2000), cited both the graphic organizers (OG) and the semantic, including maps of stories (scripts), one of the seven categories of teaching (instruction) that are most effective in improving reading comprehension.

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